Why do medieval buildings overhang their lower floors?


  1. Jay Frank

    Jay FrankDay ago

    My house has this

  2. Julien Jolin Nicol

    Julien Jolin Nicol2 days ago

    When you are in a narow area eaven few cm can help and They can create a psychological effect against peoples who want to atact you You can really say from far awey if ther are meticulation or not (exemp for those 10 cm gap) If you are an under educated foot soldjer you may not want to take that risk And it shoud be wey mor easy and chep to creat that gap without meticulation And it's cool XD

  3. Ragebox85

    Ragebox852 days ago

    Also you can empty your chamber pot without splattering it on the wall of your house

  4. João Girardi

    João Girardi4 days ago

    *M A C H I C O L A T I O N S*

  5. BasementRuthie

    BasementRuthie7 days ago

    I turned my volume way down at the start of this episode in anticipation of MASCHICOLATIONNNNNNNNNS

  6. Lucifer Morningstar

    Lucifer Morningstar7 days ago

    I just thought it was a defence mechanism for people trying to climb the wall. To make it more of a pain in the ass.

  7. Jarsh

    Jarsh9 days ago

    Function becomes Aesthetic.

  8. Ikikmusic

    Ikikmusic10 days ago

    Tudor TUDOR TUDOR!!!!!!

  9. m b

    m b12 days ago

    If this guy didn’t ramble on so much would like watching his videos

  10. Ambience World

    Ambience World12 days ago

    I've got a theory of why there were battlements without machicolations. A license had to be granted by the King Of England, before battlements could be build. Maybe, without the machicolations, they bypassed having to get a license?

  11. Ambience World

    Ambience World12 days ago

    Do we get a diploma for subscribing to Shadiversity? 😊

  12. Matthew Egan

    Matthew Egan12 days ago

    The reason for the overhang was more practical. When it rains you can walk under it and keep dryer.

  13. Nuukuu

    Nuukuu13 days ago

    why do you speak like you're talking to a bunch of tards

  14. Ben V

    Ben V13 days ago

    I enjoy watching your videos so I can downvote them all

  15. ShellShock794

    ShellShock79413 days ago

    I think it's really easy for us to forget that these were people just like us and a lot of things were probably done for no other reason than it looked cool

  16. Peter Goettler

    Peter Goettler16 days ago

    Interesting,Thanks. (Makes Sense)

  17. Alcerus

    Alcerus19 days ago

    My first thought for the reason behind jettying was for better rain protection.

  18. dasnurk

    dasnurk22 days ago

    Now that was a plug and a half xD

  19. Elizabeth

    Elizabeth25 days ago

    If you were to add machicolations when the ramparts were extended, then you still wouldn't have any more space to walk because there would be holes.

  20. Zach Hilleary

    Zach Hilleary25 days ago

    Also consider most jetting was on the side of a building where the roof wasn't sloped. To prevent rain from soaking the timber causing it to rot.

  21. insorte diaboli

    insorte diaboli27 days ago

    at 5 minutes when you're talking about the bottom floor being used for storage and keeping animals and the living quarters being over it makes me wonder if that is how the concept of basements came along

  22. LethalDragon1

    LethalDragon128 days ago

    What is the name of the castle at 13:51?

  23. LethalDragon1

    LethalDragon128 days ago

    Also, 17:23... That’s beautiful. ❤️

  24. Jimisin73

    Jimisin73Month ago

    The machiculations and the goal of extra space for movement on the ramparts are at odds, because a defender can't really walk on the openings, no?

  25. Johan Uskrup

    Johan UskrupMonth ago

    When I visited France a tour guide there told me that it also had to do with the local governments only taxing the floors on the square footage of the bottom floor, so there was no variation in between the taxes. Medevial tax evasion. This may have only been for the region of France that I was in though. It was a about 10 years ago so I only know that it was a walled city in northern France(I can’t remember the state or name of the city though)

  26. David Volta

    David VoltaMonth ago

    8:30 is my hometown : Dijon !! so proud to live there and be in your video

  27. Ha Ns

    Ha NsMonth ago


  28. from TheLIVINGroom

    from TheLIVINGroomMonth ago

    did you ever think about the advantages of water draining apart from the wall than sliding across it?

  29. mens facial wax

    mens facial waxMonth ago

    Why wasnt this channel recommended before

  30. Chris Hunt

    Chris HuntMonth ago

    What castle is that at 9:26?

  31. Assurbanipal

    AssurbanipalMonth ago

    "Maybe you have seen these houses in documentaries, games, movies or whatever" - I see them everyday in reality. It's Europe over here.

  32. Andrew Glebus

    Andrew GlebusMonth ago

    Shad, your intro gives me Nostalgia in every video I watch because it sounds a lot like the combat music in The Elder Scrolls Oblivion

  33. Rob Clark

    Rob ClarkMonth ago

    RE castles not having true machiculation(sp?). If so you know in life is what you've experienced and the last few castles you attacked had these death holes in pretty sure you'd remember that the next time you attacked a castle that looked anything like that. So in addition to looking imposing and aesthetically pleasing I'd think your average medieval person would be a bit weary. Besides, SOMEBODY has to get in real close to see if they're real or fake.

  34. CaptBunnykiller

    CaptBunnykillerMonth ago

    Two additional reasons I recall for jettying in the city: in many cities there may have been a floorplan tax for merchants instead of an income tax. So the tax was determined by the size of the shop on groundlevel. When those where build, there was not yet a restriction to the usage of "air space", of course smart people would take advantage of that. The second reason: When you empty your toilet bucket through the window, you don't want to hit your own store front.

  35. thomasthemtman

    thomasthemtmanMonth ago

    ANSWER: In midevil times many properties were taxes based in the FOOTPRINT, the bottom area of the building. So you build a small bottom and have a large bedroom upstairs to save on taxes BAM

  36. Miles Peterson

    Miles PetersonMonth ago

    This was quite fascinating. Thank you for sharing this.

  37. Yuhao Wang

    Yuhao WangMonth ago

    I love ur videos! May be next time talk about some city walls plzzzz

  38. Joseph Phillips

    Joseph PhillipsMonth ago

    Is it sad that I had to pause the video to be sure that the hammering sound was coming from the video?

  39. Méliane Russias

    Méliane RussiasMonth ago

    I live in France and my house has no ground foundation and actually stone originally it was covered by tile and cement. in our countryside it was still until a hundred years ago!

  40. Zafar Sami

    Zafar SamiMonth ago

    Overhangs also make climbing over the wall more difficult.

  41. Haris Manou

    Haris ManouMonth ago

    In Greece they use to make the floor overhang so they can have view and check the entrace and also they control the street better in cases of attack.

  42. Kremer Forester

    Kremer ForesterMonth ago

    They should have had a guy yelling : Attention! All archers please head to battle stations! Mind the gap! Attention! Mind the gap!

  43. Lukas König

    Lukas KönigMonth ago

    Woudln't it be terribly dangerous for the archers on the battlements? I mean, one step and they're down the machicolations.

  44. Goce Kocov

    Goce KocovMonth ago

    in my country, until the 19th century, this style of construction was used. Such a structure was retained in the city of Ohrid www.thiscityknows.com/greetings-from-ohrid-its-the-1930s-on-the-postcards/ plepe.at/14

  45. electrogestapo

    electrogestapoMonth ago

    I was in a 100-something year old Spanish colonial house in Asia one time and it had a 5-foot overhang over the main door below. On the floor is a small trap door which the owner said is for shooting arrows / guns on unwanted visitors. I thought it was funny since the house was half made of wood and the victims of this defensive feature could retaliate by simply burning down the house and the occupants along with it.

  46. neophytealpha

    neophytealphaMonth ago

    Taxes were based on the footprint of the lowest level.

  47. ReN

    ReNMonth ago

    i liked the video when i heard a battlecry at the end

  48. Илья НН

    Илья ННMonth ago

    This video will help you build a house in minecraft)

  49. Michael Dow

    Michael DowMonth ago

    Its to stop minecraft spiders getting in

  50. Knjaz1700

    Knjaz1700Month ago

    In middle ages (especially in countries affected by wars including wars between neighbouring feudal lords), towns and cities had to be protected by walls against possible attacks. Stonewalls were expensive and took siginicant time to build. Space inside the city walls was limited. Therefore the cost of land and land taxes were significant. To reduce cost and pay less taxes, people used to build overhanging structures.

  51. phil h

    phil hMonth ago

    Overhangs on a house could also provide protection against weather. Rain etc. Also better for throwing waste out of upper windows. Overhangs on stone walls could also make it more difficult to climb over the wall.

  52. son of loki 3011

    son of loki 3011Month ago

    Also if you didn't have machicolations but a mutually supporting tower they could fight of guys at the base of your tower and vice versa

  53. son of loki 3011

    son of loki 3011Month ago

    Fight off*

  54. Bush Channel

    Bush ChannelMonth ago

    I like the simple answer, “it’s for shooting arrows at and dropping rocks onto bad guys down below.”

  55. JBBrickman

    JBBrickmanMonth ago

    Did any other fellow Subscribers at 9:06 yell, MACHICOLATIONS!!!!!

  56. danilo escleto

    danilo escletoMonth ago


  57. danilo escleto

    danilo escletoMonth ago


  58. Bob Dodge

    Bob DodgeMonth ago

    I never thought about before but this was quite informative

  59. TheLastOperator

    TheLastOperatorMonth ago

    Wow, at 8:25 ! I know this place ! I live in that city ! (Dijon in France) Also my favorite type of architecture

  60. M V

    M VMonth ago

    Regarding castle part. Imagine someone climbing on top from outside. Even 10cm of that wall going out could easly make him problem to climb up. Even when using ladder. Ladder needed to be placed that much far away and that much higher then usual .

  61. M V

    M VMonth ago

    And when its rain or snow you can sit in front of home and have cover . And only top would need painting every cuple years because water elements wouldn't go down to the bottom of building and you won't need to spend money to pain it all only the top one.

  62. luca fornaby

    luca fornabyMonth ago

    hey shad can you talk about mongolian archery they have a style of using a bow behind the back where they can shoot straight down off a wall

  63. Tohtori Vanukas

    Tohtori VanukasMonth ago

    The buildings are scared of the assassins climbing on them

  64. Angela Hale

    Angela HaleMonth ago

    I could write an entire short story about all the ways I'd hurt myself on machicolations.

  65. Dwight Looi

    Dwight LooiMonth ago

    Jetting is also done in part because it PROVIDES SHELTER! The upper levels jutting out and the roof jutting out beyond that provides a sheltered area below. This shelters not just humans and living things underneath, it also shelters the WALLS underneath from water and snowmelts dripping from the upper levels. Keeping your walls dry is important for the purpose of keeping your walls from rotting or becoming moldy.

  66. Cyrus Fidelio

    Cyrus FidelioMonth ago

    you just make shit up.

  67. somercet1

    somercet1Month ago

    "Stumps"?? Oh, you mean pilings. Or stone footings. Yes, conserving the use of those would be a labor saver in the country.

  68. Harrison Rawlinson

    Harrison RawlinsonMonth ago

    The footprint of the building was preferred to be limited because often in medieval cities, I’ve heard they charged the price for land based on the footprint, so you get ‘free space ‘if you extend the floor above

  69. Gherman TheK

    Gherman TheKMonth ago

    In school i was told that higher floors were bigger than lower floors because owners of the buildings counted taxes by the first floor. The smaller the first floor the lower are the taxes because that is how much land it takes for your building.

  70. Melanie Boots

    Melanie BootsMonth ago

    Here's another reason to having these extended areas on stone castles. And that is to prevent people, or at least make it harder for attackers and theives to climb over the walls.

  71. RADZIO895

    RADZIO8952 months ago

    Obviously to stop minecraft spiders from climbing on the roof

  72. Hector Heath

    Hector Heath2 months ago

    Maybe the reason was a trompe-l'œil for themus looking at a distance with a desire to attack the castle.

  73. Patrick Smith

    Patrick Smith2 months ago

    Chamber pots. Wasn't chamber pots at least part of it?

  74. James M

    James M2 months ago

    7 minutes to give the answer

  75. dom dan

    dom dan2 months ago

    I was taught this was related to taxation being based on the ground floor footprint of a property.

  76. Fur Queue

    Fur Queue2 months ago

    2:00 Cut straight to the point and miss out the pomp

  77. Ronny Ingman

    Ronny Ingman2 months ago

    Guess what?? It has a name!!!. Yah.. Humans do like to put a label on stuff xD

  78. Manuel85

    Manuel852 months ago

    So they look like a dildoes...

  79. jon smitt

    jon smitt2 months ago

    For a video this long I expected a physics explanation why the machicolations don’t break off. Some of those photos, it looks like the whole thing could tip off at the corbel.

  80. Myrothios Kingslayer

    Myrothios Kingslayer2 months ago


  81. Chris Lord

    Chris Lord2 months ago

    I was always told (and sorry if I missed it) but I was always told that the bottom level footprint was what was taxed. The smaller the bottom floor, the less tax....

  82. Armitige Shanks

    Armitige Shanks2 months ago

    Interesting information that could have been conveyed in a more succinct manner.

  83. John Draisey

    John Draisey2 months ago

    More game designers should watch this video. I think even modern FPS's could benefit from this battle design of matriculations.

  84. Koniving

    Koniving2 months ago

    For the extremely slight overhang, the small bit could add a minor impediment to climbing the side of the wall when not using a ladder. Even then, the base of a ladder would need to be a bit further out and without as much support from the wall if set up without an angle.

  85. Lucky13

    Lucky132 months ago

    Okay first off I have no historical knowledge but from just thinking about it wouldn't it make sense to do it so that way you would have less wind blowing up to make your shots more accurate? and I understand that I'm probably way off base but it was just a thought

  86. No One

    No One2 months ago

    I love youtube, it's so damn weird drifting from IT tech videos (my field).. to magic and sleight of hand, to sign language, to beat boxing, to animation, internet series, editing, filming, screenwriting and directing, and now swords and medieval architecture XD

  87. Jeff Cyr

    Jeff Cyr2 months ago

    I'm so happy you wrote how to spell Machicolations I'd been wondering ever since I first hear of them from you! Could they not have been built on castles where the worry of slipping into them could have been an issue. Castles made of slippery stone or in colder climates that could lead the defenders to slip their leg in by accident and possibly twist or even break their ankles?

  88. fred white

    fred white2 months ago

    I think in some areas in the united states [especially the older areas that have seen a century or two] you can observe a similar style on some buildings for example brick masonry architecture mostly at the top at the roof of the building though but there are Gothic style buildings in the US that have jettying so...

  89. Zutang777

    Zutang7772 months ago

    TELL ME WHY!!!! I need to know!!

  90. Sean Brian

    Sean Brian3 months ago

    So where did you get your winged spear in the back ground? I've been looking for a nice one like that but I don't invest in wall-hangers.

  91. Boris Farage

    Boris Farage3 months ago

    Come on, divs, everyone knows it was to do with taxes. The ground floor was taxed by cubic space so they made it small to pay less. The upper stories, which weren't taxed, are bigger to give more room.

  92. D P

    D P3 months ago

    First starts to answer the headline question at 2:07. Your welcome.

  93. windy pup

    windy pup3 months ago

    You gotta get to the point quicker otherwise we lose interest.

  94. Leonard Wong

    Leonard Wong3 months ago

    love it. rain. drips off n doesn't weather the foundations n rest of the building so much. sensible. I love castles.

  95. Simon He

    Simon He3 months ago

    The thing with the castles was not invented by the romans. For example the egyptians had it before.

  96. Pyree

    Pyree3 months ago

    12:59 hehehe more like cramparts

  97. Wrathwine

    Wrathwine3 months ago

    a lot of this pictures seem to be from guild 3

  98. David Stopa

    David Stopa3 months ago

    My understanding of the over hang in civilian buildings was because of a land tax. At least this is so in the UK. So you would buy land to build on then use as much as you could then the upper floors would over hang for more space as you said. The owner would then pay land tax on the land used. So a tax scam in a way. I also believe the style became fashionable and so was used more as it looks good but like most things, money was the motive..... well money and space. This idea would also add reason to to country side buildings as well. Anyway that my understanding, what do you think Shade?

  99. Svet3

    Svet33 months ago

    14:55 That might be maybe usefull for Spilling boiling hot tar/oil on enemys that try to damage/climb the wall. Now I dunno if that was actually done in the medieval age but if - it might explain it.

  100. Churck

    Churck3 months ago

    The real reason is to prevent spiders from climbing your castle walls, everyone knows that

  101. Churck

    Churck3 months ago

    9:10 That would have been the perfect moment to scream "machicolation!!!"

  102. Kantia

    Kantia3 months ago

    Because it's pretty duh