How one scientist averted a national health crisis - Andrea Tone


  1. TED-Ed

    TED-Ed5 months ago

    If you're a student with a passion for science, share your ideas, discoveries and hopes with the world through TED's student idea platform: If your passions lie elsewhere, we want to hear from you, too! TED-Ed is creating a space to celebrate and amplify student ideas on a wide range of topics - from human rights to staying organized in school - and we want you to be a part of it! Check it out!

  2. Arnav Kelkar

    Arnav KelkarMonth ago

    TED-Ed (

  3. Nesiah Coward

    Nesiah Coward3 months ago

    I love this channel because your illustrations are magnificent and your commentators have such soothing voices. There are things that I have learned from this channel, which helps me so much in school. Its amazing, thank you so much.

  4. Sim

    Sim5 months ago

    TED-Ed Hello

  5. TheSassi42

    TheSassi425 months ago

    lalla jha I don't understand. this video political. I thought it was about a scientist/doctor.

  6. lalla jha

    lalla jha5 months ago

    Tedx stop using it for political benefits. It's a learning organization not a political one.

  7. Pinglen

    Pinglen4 days ago

    What kind of group of idiots tries to get their drug accepted even though the truth about it has been spread world wide

  8. jimbobbyrnes

    jimbobbyrnes11 days ago

    back when people actually tried to save people and not just make money

  9. Jasmine and Rose Huang

    Jasmine and Rose Huang17 days ago

    Just think. If her name was Elizabeth or Mary, we might still be using these dangerous drugs today!

  10. Steve Tomson

    Steve Tomson17 days ago

    What did you study person who voiced this?

  11. Squirtle

    Squirtle17 days ago

    It's been proven through statistics (at least from wgat I've heard) that the reason why women don't join STEM fields is because they'd rather do something else. This is just based on what I've heard, but I find it more believable than "they can't join because they're women" Awesome video though

  12. lol out laod

    lol out laod18 days ago

    you know its going down when she rolled her sleeve 0:17

  13. Harkish Brar

    Harkish Brar19 days ago

    Did you guys she the picture at the bottom side of the screen? It was real people It looked like a family Ted Ed if there’s any connection answer it Please

  14. Braydo B.

    Braydo B.21 day ago

    If she graduated at the age of 15, why do they make her look so old?

  15. Fyak Yuu

    Fyak Yuu21 day ago

    not today, she would be silenced for trying to help, money talks

  16. 612Tiberius

    612Tiberius24 days ago

    Keep in mind that anyone now living who was born between 1961 and 1965 (including here in America) could very well have been one of those prenatally exposed to their mothers taking this biotoxin (for lack of a better word); and if so, if even born at all would probably have been born with these genetic afflictions, negatively impacting the quality and quantity of their entire life and the viability of reproducing (no children born, or similarly afflicted). I fit into that age cohort, as do millions of others in this country and the world. Consider that when appraising the prudence of judgement (or lack thereof) in FDA fast-tracking so-called "miracle drugs" that is so rampant these days. Always keep this video in mind as a cautionary tale....

  17. Elizabeth Hall

    Elizabeth Hall24 days ago

    this video made me proud to be a Chemical Engineering major, i'm following my passion and proving women belong in STEM

  18. Salim Hassan

    Salim Hassan27 days ago

    who else search dr frances kelsey after watching this video

  19. Yuriy Dovhan

    Yuriy Dovhan27 days ago

    I hope FDA pumps out phage treatments quick so that we could kill those bacteria

  20. Dolfy Parodies

    Dolfy ParodiesMonth ago

    Where is her Nobel Peace Prize

  21. ppppppppppp

    pppppppppppMonth ago

    Esa señora murió y ahí se corrompió todo!!

  22. smurfx

    smurfxMonth ago

    if this happened today she would have probably gotten fired and replaced with a yes man.

  23. MBM

    MBMMonth ago

    Good story but I can tell you why they are disproportionately represented in STEM fields, IT DOESN’T APPEAL TO THEM

  24. ahua luo

    ahua luoMonth ago

    Feels like scientists and business ppl are natural opponents

  25. Stephanie Chiong

    Stephanie ChiongMonth ago

    Yeesh, Merrell are crazy idiots

  26. roy rogers

    roy rogersMonth ago

    Yay, she did her job.

  27. Linda Wright

    Linda WrightMonth ago

    This is a classic example of how Big Business cares more about profits than about the well-being of its customers. What is most scary is that today the corrupt Trump administration controls who heads the FDA and is clearly pro-business and anti-consumer. Is the FDA now approving pharmaceuticals just as dangerous as thalidomide in order to further enrich the CEOs and rich shareholders of Big Pharma? We have recently seen the slow federal response to the trickery used by one pharmaceutical company to convince physicians it was safe to prescrib highly addictive opioids as general painkillers for public and how this created an epidemic of opioid-addicted people. Be cautious about deciding to use any new medications approved by the FDA under the Trump administration -- you do not want to be a human test case for a poorly researched/fraudulently researched medication rushed to the US market to enrich corporate shareholders.

  28. Nathan Murphy

    Nathan MurphyMonth ago

    Forever immortalized in a great Billy Joel song.

  29. cakepoprock

    cakepoprockMonth ago

    I hope the people who wanted to approve it feel guilty

  30. Hanhil

    HanhilMonth ago

    I appreciate this heroine. I also appreciated the fact that her colleagues at FDA supported her. It would have been so much more worse for her if they didn't.

  31. JJ Unicorn

    JJ UnicornMonth ago

    why isn’t she more recognized? this is an awesome story!

  32. ゆParakoi

    ゆParakoiMonth ago


  33. STELLAR!

    STELLAR!Month ago

    She lived *101 YEARS??* why is no one talking about that?!

  34. Lyndis S.

    Lyndis S.Month ago

    Ah. It's great to remember that the United States had been a fertile ground and a patron for science! Can we keep that up?

  35. Gybbson Lesly

    Gybbson LeslyMonth ago

    So she did her job to the best of her abilities to standards that she was supposed to stand up to as requirements for her jobs and lucked upon one out of hundreds of thalidomide products which as part of her job she rejected it. Then rejected it again until she became famous. I mean other people did notice the problems with the product and the rest of the few backed her up. She basically was just lucky. And I guess so are we. But literally anyone doing their job properly in fda could have become famous. And a few years earlier at that. Thalidomide could also have passed if the company that sold the T. based product did better research or found away to use T. safely.

  36. Cool Watermelon ShowTM

    Cool Watermelon ShowTMMonth ago

    This was a good video

  37. Zombie Flâneuse

    Zombie FlâneuseMonth ago

    She saved so many children. Hurrah for her and others like her. 🙌

  38. Aaron Brown

    Aaron BrownMonth ago

    There is a lack of women in STEM because most women choose not to enter STEM. The trend is due almost entirely to personal choice, not institutional discrimination as in Ms. Kelsey's case.

  39. Xexomaru

    XexomaruMonth ago

    The time when the FDA used to do its job

  40. aditya gupta

    aditya guptaMonth ago

    this made me cry

  41. keto11

    keto11Month ago

    Thanks for not making this a sexist issue EDIT: yeah nvm me

  42. electromt

    electromtMonth ago

    Nice *Read more*

  43. P B

    P BMonth ago

    All the men crying in the comments section. Smh.

  44. John Michael Damian

    John Michael DamianMonth ago

    Wow. She's cool.

  45. Josie Joestar

    Josie Joestar2 months ago

    You had me till about the 5 minute mark. Then you lost me.

  46. august smith

    august smith2 months ago

    Cool, yeah, whatever, cool vid, blah

  47. Crowel Lovecraft

    Crowel Lovecraft2 months ago

    how an amazing story of an ultra amazing person was ruined by gender war my advice stop watching at 4:35 if u dont want to buy the bs the gender hero is trying to oush here . shame on u

  48. Manu Nr

    Manu Nr2 months ago

    Those thoughts before each clip are very apt , please keep doing those ...

  49. Chloe Price

    Chloe Price2 months ago

    I will remember you docter Kelsey

  50. Holly O'Connor

    Holly O'Connor2 months ago

    That lady saved more than just lives; she 'in some ways' saved the future. Rock on, Dr. Kelsey!!!

  51. Arleigh Peterson

    Arleigh Peterson2 months ago

    Why women aren't in STEM: They don't wan't to be

  52. Virginia Gordon

    Virginia GordonMonth ago

    Or....... Women aren't invited in the science field

  53. That Russian

    That Russian2 months ago

    So, her achievement was not really a scientific breakthrough, but rather an educated bureaucratic checklist. Gotcha.

  54. Sangita Barai

    Sangita Barai2 months ago

    This is where the losers comments are

  55. Astariol

    Astariol2 months ago

    50 years later the Trump administration is trying to prohibit the use of the term "evidence-based".

  56. Love INDIA

    Love INDIA2 months ago

    The Great People are Not Born by Birth They Become Great by their Works and Decisions. She is A Great Gift to Humanity.

  57. Angel Benitez

    Angel Benitez2 months ago

    Can we just celebrate her as a brilliant scientist not a female scientist who was subjected to 'social norms'? You diminish her accomplishment by painting her as a victim.

  58. Christine McManus

    Christine McManusMonth ago

    Facing gender bias doesn't make a person a victim - you're only a victim if you let it control your life. She didn't. Not acknowledging the difficulties women in STEM faced back then would be ahistorical, and wouldn't paint the full picture of what she was up against when she refused to approve Thalidomide. She was a brilliant scientist who saved millions of lives and overcame gender barriers. One achievement does not diminish or negate the other.

  59. Lesbian Amazon Sister

    Lesbian Amazon Sister2 months ago

    It’s hard to imagine a time when the U.S. was more precautionary than Europe with new drugs. (Look up the precautionary principle practiced in Europe).

  60. Hobo The Dog

    Hobo The Dog2 months ago

    SHE LIVED FOR 101 YEARS?!?!?!

  61. crystal beats

    crystal beats2 months ago

    one of my teachers last names is davies shes my english teacher

  62. crystal beats

    crystal beats2 months ago


  63. Ioan Jivan

    Ioan Jivan2 months ago

    seems more than national security

  64. The Fiddly Diddler

    The Fiddly Diddler2 months ago

    She was a hero because she saved thousands of lives, not because she was a women.

  65. Carl Jakobsson

    Carl Jakobsson2 months ago

    A great deed by Kelsey, but to think that americans are 'protected' by the FDA is a bit strange. Because, with the new stringent requirements on drugs it would take longer and longer for beneficial drugs to be sold on the market. There are various estimates of how many die due medicine being available but illegal to prescribe to patients, but some suggests that prohibiting propranolol, a beta-blocker, may have resulted in the death of 30 to 280 thousand people; and maybe 80 thousand died from the prohibition of Septra, an antibiotic. See "Economics of Public Issues", pp 6-7.

  66. That one friend

    That one friend2 months ago

    She fought prejudice because of her gender and greedy companies that gave Faldo accusations to become a saviour of so many people. Another underrepresented genius in my opinion, I mean, what a badass!

  67. Blue Hoodie8

    Blue Hoodie82 months ago

    When idiots try to tell a smart person to change

  68. cerci Ironborn

    cerci Ironborn2 months ago

    #feminism for doing her work?

  69. Captain Landalien

    Captain Landalien2 months ago

    This was a really great video, very educational, but I would like to point out that at the end, while it was true back then, nowadays, women are unrepresented in stem fields not because they are accepted less, or paid less, but because they apply less, infact employers even prefer a female over an equally qualified male. There are probably social factors that affect this, yes, not not the points this video gave.

  70. Guy White

    Guy White2 months ago

    I didn't really like personal commentary, at the end. You should put a name on it. Don't just imply it's that it's all men. That's just as bad as the claim you are making about them. Thumbs up, though. Whomever disliked this should have their head examined. What's not to like about healthy babies? Am I right?

  71. Julian Qarim

    Julian Qarim2 months ago

    Damn gurl!

  72. Thorerx

    Thorerx2 months ago

    Loved it up until the end. Inspiring story. Nothing wrong with women choosing not to go into stem fields. Nothing wrong with men choosing not to go into nursing fields. Nothing wrong with men choosing not to get an education in psychology. Why do we care what field people focus on based on their gender?

  73. Alejandro Reyes

    Alejandro Reyes2 months ago

    it's because women love to cheer on hard-working female scientists, but don't want to be one themselves for a variety of reasons. it's a matter of interest imho

  74. jazmine

    jazmine2 months ago

    thank you for telling her story. please tell more stories of these unknown heros

  75. TheFlowMind

    TheFlowMind2 months ago

    We had not been so lucky in EU. No one stopped the drug and thousands of people were born with terrible disabilities. My mum was born in 1962 in Italy and she’s one of the Thalidomide’s children.

  76. Mr. Meeseeks

    Mr. Meeseeks2 months ago

    Sad. Now the FDA can be bought by the highest bidders.

  77. Nelson Torres

    Nelson Torres3 months ago

    Because motivation is different motivation in career choosing!

  78. Zack Vine

    Zack Vine3 months ago

    this episode was good until the end where it turned into leftist propaganda

  79. The Real Deal

    The Real Deal3 months ago

    Ancaps, I’ve got my eye on you.

  80. kcmn00

    kcmn003 months ago

    What a true hero

  81. Miko Mido

    Miko Mido3 months ago

    Why are women underrepresented in STEM? It certainly not the Patriarchy

  82. Whitninjathemovie

    Whitninjathemovie3 months ago

    Should she have received an award for doing her job?

  83. Veronika Alcoba

    Veronika Alcoba3 months ago

    She finished an undergraduate AND postgrad in 2 years?!!!! Not to mention 4 freakin degrees?? Hot dammmnnn 👏👏👏 #powertowomen

  84. SirJMO

    SirJMO3 months ago

    I disagree with the ending notion: women being unrepresented in stem fields. If anything it's young

  85. Piññaġnaqtuq

    Piññaġnaqtuq3 months ago

    Why is nursing (including masters, NP, and PhD) ever-snubbed as a STEM field? Because it's already women-heavy. Include nursing in your STEM counts and you may see those numbers inch a little closer towards what we would like to see as far as 50/50

  86. RandomdudeZ9

    RandomdudeZ93 months ago

    Moral of the story. Follow what you f*cking say.

  87. Lord Felidae

    Lord Felidae3 months ago

    I am so glad she got to see the good she did.

  88. Sam Seidel • 11 minutes ago

    Sam Seidel • 11 minutes ago3 months ago

    We love our individuals

  89. Alexis Marie

    Alexis Marie3 months ago

    she’s like im just doing my job dudes

  90. Johannes Weger

    Johannes Weger3 months ago

    Im from Italy and I know many Peopel whos Kids or Friends where deformed.

  91. Myranda Partaker

    Myranda Partaker3 months ago

    honestly this video only makes me lose faith in humanity

  92. K B

    K B3 months ago

    I'm a college student. From my experience, women are only underrepresented in Engineering, Physics, Computer Science, and Philosophy... *Every* other major (from Chemistry to Sociology) has a good number of men and women. And women make up the majority in some majors. That said, I've seen sexist attitudes from people in majors that are mostly male or female.

  93. Sofia dk

    Sofia dk3 months ago

    It inspires us tô not give up, even with the different threatment we get Just for benigno women

  94. Sofia dk

    Sofia dk3 months ago

    I absolutely loved this video!!

  95. Hakan Töre

    Hakan Töre3 months ago

    dislikes are this guys 2:32

  96. Timmy Ledwon

    Timmy Ledwon3 months ago

    I love the video but women are getting a degree in women's studies then complaining that there aren't any women in stem fields.

  97. KAT PHAM

    KAT PHAM3 months ago

    I was actually very surprised to hear that the FDA firmly backed her up considering the fact that women were looked down upon, back then

  98. jordan park

    jordan park3 months ago

    Didn't appreciate the crude and reductionist lecture at the end, but the rest of the video was nice and inspiring.

  99. Nesiah Coward

    Nesiah Coward3 months ago

    For anyone wondering, she lived to be 101 years old. That amazing

  100. william

    william3 months ago

    true hero

  101. Leah Winningham

    Leah Winningham3 months ago

    Women don't go into STEM fields normally. The only reason is because they don't find interest in it. Women are free to choose

  102. terry ferguson

    terry ferguson3 months ago

    Science is largely sorcery and magic,carried out by demons,NOT people with aspergers syndrome.The technology comes from the fallen angels and demons that inhabit people.Read the book of Enoch.Audio version on youtube.See Trey Smith`s video on the Nephiim.

  103. John Marshall

    John Marshall3 months ago

    She stooped the drug but the harm was already done thalidomide was in USA from 1956 to 1962 as samples millions of pills were given out

  104. Karl Palomo

    Karl Palomo3 months ago

    Wow :'-)

  105. Lovin9Lives

    Lovin9Lives3 months ago

    all thanks to the "mistake" of thinking she was male when accepted for her phd! Mr. Oldham and she was able to get her further education and saved lives!

  106. jerrij4242

    jerrij42423 months ago


  107. LilmsKobe V

    LilmsKobe V3 months ago

    She died when I was 10

  108. Vaut

    Vaut3 months ago

    I’m so proud of her